Flexible spending accounts (FSAs), also called Section 125 plans after the relevant section of the Internal Revenue Code, are commonplace benefits. But, perhaps because they are common, some employers and employees don’t understand some of the regulations that apply to these plans.
IRS Publication 969 titled “Health Savings Accounts and Other Tax-Favored Health Plans” is an excellent primer for FSAs and other tax-favored benefits. The most recent version used for preparing 2017 tax returns can be found here.
Among the recent questions received at Compliance Corner was this one: If an employer offers an HSA and a FSA, and an employee elects both is that permissible? Once again with compliance questions, there is no short answer!
The difficulty arises because, according to the IRS in Revenue Ruling 2004-45, an “eligible individual” for a HSA is an individual covered under a high deductible health plan (HDHP) who does not have “coverage for any benefit which is covered under the high deductible health plan.” The FSA, as it is traditionally designed, violates this rule.
But, there is a work around as the Revenue Ruling notes. The work around is a “limited purpose FSA.” A “limited purpose FSA” allows reimbursement of dental and vision expenses. A typical FSA covers medical expenses allowed by IRS Code Section 213(d) – which is much more expansive than dental and vision services.
Another example of a “limited purpose FSA” is known as a “post-deductible FSA.” The “post-deductible FSA” is aptly named as the plan doesn’t reimburse for any medical expenses incurred before the minimum HDHP deductible has been met.
Both the “limited purpose FSA” and the “post-deductible FSA” are covered on page 4 of IRS Publication 969.
Revenue Ruling 2004-45 can be found here.